دورات الهندسة الكهربائية

33 kv -/11 kv substation operation

الرقم المرجعي: 2015023

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BASICS

  • 1- INTRODUCTION
  • 2- MAGNETIC FIELD
  • 3- MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC FIELDS
  • 4- ELECTROMAGNETISM
  • 5- ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
  • 6- GENERATING ELECTRICAL CURRENT
  • 7- ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUITS
  • 8- INSTANTANEOUS POWER (p)
  • 9- COMPLEX POWER
  • 10- POWER TRIANGLE
  • 11- POWER FACTOR
  • 12- THREE PHASE SYSTEM
  • 13- WORLDWIDE AC VOLTAGES AND FREQUENCIES
  • 14- PER-UNIT VALUES
  • 15- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 2: GENERATION OF POWER AND GENERATING PLANTS

  • 1- INTRODUCTION
  • 2- ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
  • 3- SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 4- GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER
  • 5- CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS
  • 6- STEAM POWER PLANTS
  • 7- HYDROELECTRIC (HYDEL) PLANTS
  • 8- NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
  • 9- DIESEL POWER PLANTS
  • 10- COMPARISON OF VARIOUS POWER PLANTS
  • 11- DO IT YOURSELF
  • CHAPTER 3: SUPPLY SYSTEMS

  • 1- INTRODUCTION
  • 2- GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
  • 3- IMPORTANT POINTS
  • 4- STAR DELTA CONNECTIONS
  • 5- COMPARISON BETWEEN A.C. AND D.C. SYSTEMS OF TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
  • 6- COMPARISON BETWEEN OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND SYSTEMS OF TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
  • 7- HIGH VOLTAGE (H.V.) D.C. TRANSMISSION
  • 8- ADVANTAGES OF H.V.D.C. TRANSMISSION
  • 9- DO IT YOURSELF
  • CHAPTER 4: TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

  • 1- INTRODUCTION
  • 2- ADVANTAGES OF TRANSMISSION AT HIGH VOLTAGE
  • 3- LIMITATIONS OF HIGH TRANSMISSION VOLTAGES
  • 4- ECONOMICAL TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE
  • 5- ECONOMICAL SIZE OF CONDUCTOR - KELVIN'S LAW
  • 6- LIMITATIONS OF KELVIN'S LAW
  • 7- NUMERICALS
  • 8- VARIOUS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
  • 9- CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF COPPER REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS OVERHEAD SYSTEMS
  • 10- CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF COPPER REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS UNDERGROUND SYSTEMS OF TRANSMISSION
  • 11- COMPARISON OF VOLUMES OF COPPER
  • 12- DO IT YOURSELF
  • CHAPTER 5: DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
    • 3- CLASSIFICATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
    • 5- SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
    • 5- REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD DISTRIBUTION SCHEME
    • 6- DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
    • 7- OVERHEAD VERSUS UNDERGROUND SYSTEM
    • 8- D.C. DISTRIBUTION
    • 9- BOOSTER
    • 10- TYPES OF LOADING
    • 11- TYPES OF DISTRIBUTORS
    • 12- DISTRIBUTOR FED AT ONE END : (CONCENTRATED LOADING)
    • 13- NUMERICALS
    • 14- DISTRIBUTOR FED AT ONE END (UNIFORMLY LOADED)
    • 15- NUMERICAL
    • 16- DISTRIBUTOR FED AT BOTH ENDS (CONCENTRATED LOADING)
    • 17- NUMERICAL
    • 18 - DISTRIBUTORS WITH UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS AND FED AT BOTH ENDS
    • 19- NUMERICAL
    • 20- DISTRIBUTOR (UNIFORMLY LOADED) FED AT THE CENTRE
    • 21- NUMERICAL
    • 22- THREE WIRE DC SYSTEM
    • 23- NUMERICALS
    • 24- RING DISTRIBUTOR
    • 25- NUMERICALS
    • 26- AC DISTRIBUTION
    • 27- AC DISTRIBUTION CALCULATIONS
    • 28- NUMERICAL
    • 29- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 6: 33 KV / 11 KV SUBSTATIONS

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- SUBSTATION
    • 3- CLASSIFICATION OF SUB-STATIONS (SS)
    • 4- COMPARISON BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SUB-STATIONS
    • 5- REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD SUB-STATION
    • 6- EQUIPMENT OF A SUB-STATION
    • 7- OTHER EQUIPMENT FOR A SUB-STATION
    • 8- POLE-MOUNTED SUB-STATION
    • 9- UNDERGROUND SUB-STATION
    • 10- SYMBOLS FOR EQUIPMENT IN SUB-STATIONS
    • 11- TERMINAL AND THROUGH SUB-STATIONS
    • 12- KEY DIAGRAM OF 66/11 KV SUB-STATION
    • 13- MINIMUM CLEARANCE FOR OUTDOOR A.C. SUBSTATION
    • 14- EARTHING EQUIPMENT
    • 15- NEUTRAL GROUNDING
    • 16- METHODS OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING
    • 17- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 7: INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHGEAR

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- SWITCHGEAR
    • 3- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUSE AND A CIRCUIT BREAKER
    • 4- COMPARISON BETWEEN SWITCH, ISOLATOR AND CIRCUIT BREAKER
    • 5- COMPONENTS OF A SWITCH GEAR
    • 6- BUS-BAR ARRANGEMENTS
    • 7- RATINGS OF BUSBARS
    • 8- SWITCHGEAR ACCOMMODATION
    • 9- CLEARANCE OF BUSBARS
    • 10- LOCATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
    • 11- SHORT-CIRCUIT
    • 12- SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
    • 13- FAULTS IN A POWER SYSTEM
    • 14- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 8: CIRCUIT BREAKERS

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 3- ARC PHENOMENON
    • 4- PRINCIPLES OF ARC EXTINCTION
    • 5- METHODS OF ARC EXTINCTION
    • 6- IMPORTANT TERMS
    • 7- CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 8- OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 9- TYPES OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 10- PLAIN BREAK OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 11- ARC CONTROL OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 12- LOW OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 13- MAINTENANCE OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 14- AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 15- TYPES OF AIR-BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 16- SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SFG) CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 17- VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS (VCB)
    • 18- CIRCUIT BREAKER CMPONENTS
    • 19- PROBLEMS OF CIRCUIT INTERRUPTION
    • 20- RESISTANCE SWITCHING
    • 21- CIRCUIT BREAKER RATINGS
    • 22- TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER MOUNTINGS AND ENCLOSURES
    • 23- TESTING OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    • 24- EXAMPLES
    • 25- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 9: FUSES

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT FUSES
    • 3- ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FUSES
    • 4- OPERATION OF FUSES
    • 5- MATERIAL OF FUSE WIRE
    • 6- TERMS RELATED WITH FUSES
    • 7- TYPES OF FUSES
    • 8- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUSE AND CIRCUIT BREAKER
    • 9- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 10: PROTECTIVE RELAYS

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- FUNCTIONS OF A RELAY
    • 3- QUALITIES OF A GOOD RELAY
    • 4- RELAY SYSTEMS
    • 5- CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS
    • 6- OBTAINING TIME DELAY/LAG/DRAG
    • 7- DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANT RELAYS
    • 8- INDUCTION RELAYS
    • 9- DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
    • 10- TRANSLAY RELAY
    • 11- IMPORTANT RELAY TERMS
    • 12- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 11: PROTECTION OF BUS BARS, FEEDERS AND TRANSMISSION LINES

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- BUS BARS
    • 3- DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION OF BUSBARS
    • 4- FAULT BUS PROTECTION
    • 3- PROTECTION OF FEEDERS
    • 4- TIME GRADED OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
    • 5- PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
    • 6- DISTANCE PROTECTION
    • 7- OVERLOAD PROTECTION OF 3 PHASE LINE
    • 8- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 12: TRANSFORMERS

    • 1- PURPOSE
    • 2- SCOPE
    • 3- TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS
    • 4- TRANSFORMER APPLICATIONS
    • 5- MAGNETIC CIRCUIT
    • 6- MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC CIRCUITS OF A TRANSFORMER
    • 7- WINDING, CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RATIOS
    • 8- LAWS OF TRANSFORMER
    • 9- PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF A TRANSFORMER
    • 10- REFLECTED IMPEDANCE
    • 11- TRANSFORMER EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
    • 12- TRANSFORMER LOSSES
    • 13- EFFICIENCY
    • 14- WHY IS TRANSFORMER EFFICIENY USUALLY HIGH?
    • 15- REGULATION
    • 16- TRANSFORMER'S VOLTAGE PER TURNS
    • 17- SIGNIFICANCE OF VOLTS PER HERTZ
    • 18- DO IT YOURSELF

    CHAPTER 13: SUBSTATION EARTHING

    • 1- EARTHING PRINCIPLES
    • 2- PROTECTIVE EARTHING EQUIPMENTS
    • 3- SOIL RESISTIVITY
    • 4- EARTH
    • 5- GROUNDING ELECTRODES
    • 6- EARTHING CONDUCTORS
    • 7- EQUIPMENT GROUNDING
    • 8- BONDING
    • 9- PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • 10- METHODS FOR DECREASING EARTHING RESISTANCE
    • 11- GROUND INSPECTION WELLS
    • 12- SOFTWARE
    • 13- GROUND RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
    • 14- PROTECTIVE GROUNDING OF POWER LINES

    CHAPTER 14: ELECTRICAL SAFETY EQUIPMENTS

    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- GENERAL INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT
    • 3- FLASH AND THERMAL PROTECTION
    • 4- HEAD AND EYE PROTECTION
    • 5- RUBBER-INSULATING EQUIPMENT
    • 6- HOT STICKS
    • 7- INSULATED TOOLS
    • 8- BARRIERS AND SIGNS
    • 9- SAFETY TAGS, LOCKS, AND LOCKING DEVICES
    • 10- VOLTAGE-MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
    • 11- SAFETY GROUNDING EQUIPMENT
    • 12- GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS
    • 13- SAFETY ELECTRICAL ONE-LINE DIAGRAM
    • 14- THE ELECTRICIAN'S SAFETY KIT
    CHAPTER 15: MEDIUM-AND HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY SYNOPSIS
    • 1- INTRODUCTION
    • 2- HIGH-VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT
    • 3- GROUNDING SYSTEMS OF OVER 1000 V
    • 4- SAFETY EQUIPMENT
    • 5- SAFETY PROCEDURES
    • 6- GOLDEN RULES
    The course will be useful for managers, engineers/highly trained technicians and operators and senior technical personnel from generation, operation, control, transmission operation departments who are involved in the planning, operation and analysis of a power system. Such electrical engineers could be working in power utilities, oil and gas production and those involved in consultancy. Participants need no specific requirements, other than a good understanding of electricity and some relevant experience in power engineering.

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