Electrical engineering courses

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM PLANNING

Ref No: 2015040

INTRODUCTION

Winston Churchill said, "A plan is nothing. Planning is everything." What one may see as a plan for developing power systems may have little or no value if the conditions and assumptions for the plan do not hold true. This applies even more so today in the era of open access, re-regulation, power markets, merchant power plants and available transfer capability. However, the act of planning in and of itself provides a means for a new plan to be developed quickly out of the ashes of the previous one. As Churchill implied, knowing the process is essential.
That process, known as power system planning, has expanded in breadth and scope in recent times. Although reliability, cost, and optimization remain key aspects, power system must now also address cost recovery, service pricing, new stakeholders and changing regulatory oversight. It must address a larger set of future conditions as competition in the generation market shrinks the pool of available information, and as merchants develop their own plans within plans.
The function of the power system is to deliver electrical energy from generation through transmission and distribution to each customer, transforming to a suitable voltage where necessary. Power system planning is based on the following basic concepts: matching customer demand; satisfying the operating constraints; minimizing investment, operating and power loss costs.
The course commences by reviewing current practice to establish a sound understanding of the underlying principles of power system.  Also are considered the developments that are taking place as a result of emissions control (Kyoto), environmental aspects and advances in system innovation

OBJECTIVES

Delegates will gain a detailed appreciation of the following:
• Understanding main concepts of power system planning.
• understanding of modern planning and design methodologies in electrical power system 
• How power systems are modeled and analyzed for planning and operation purposes
• How to improve the quality of supply. To know how to design , and calculate, of new power plants. 
• Understanding of the modern methods for planning capacity needs of power delivery (Transmission and Distribution). 
• To learn the load behavior and load growth characteristics. 
• To learn how to forecast energy, maximum demand and number of consumers. 
• To learn how to load forecasting in planning of power systems.
• Detailed appreciation Demand side management
• Alternative forms of generation and embedded generation. Carbon emissions trading, etc.
• To be familiar with earthing requirements. 
 

CHAPTER 1: ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM PLANNING - OVERVIEW
1- INTRODUCTION
2- POWER SYSTEM PLANNING STRUCTURE
3- LOAD FORECASTING
4- GENERATION PLANNING
5- TRANSMISSION SYSTEM PLANNING
6- SUBSTATION EXPANSION
7- SUBSTATION SITE SELECTION
8- DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING
9- ENVIRONMENTAL   PLANNING
10- FINANCIAL PLANNING

CHAPTER 2: GENERATION OF POWER AND GENERATING PLANTS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
3- SOURCES OF ENERGY
4- GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER
5- CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS
6- STEAM POWER PLANTS
7- HYDROELECTRIC (HYDEL) PLANTS
8- NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
9- DIESEL POWER PLANTS
10- COMPARISON OF VARIOUS POWER PLANTS
11- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 3: LOAD CHARACTERISTICS
1- ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
2- VARIABLE LOAD ON POWER STATION
3- LOAD CURVES
4- DEFINITIONS, TERMS AND FACTORS
5- FEEDER LOAD
6- LOAD CURVES
7- SELECTION OF GENERATING UNITS
8- BASE LOAD AND PEAK LOAD ON POWER STATION
9- METHOD OF MEETING THE LOAD
10- LOAD TYPES
11- LOAD FORECASTING
12- DO IT YOURSELF


CHAPTER 4: ECONOICS OF POWER GENERATION
1- INTRODUCTION
2- ECONOMICS OF POWER GENERATION
3- CHOICE IN TYPE OF GENERATION
4- CAPITAL COST OF PLANTS
5- COST OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
6- METHODS OF DEPRECIATION CALCULATION
7- EFFECT OF LOAD FACTOR ON UNIT ENERGY COST
8- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 5: TARIFF
1- INTRODUCTION
2- TARIFF- DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS
3- TYPES OF TARIFF
4- NUMERICALS
5- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 6: IMPROVEMENT OF POWER FACTOR
1- INTRODUCTION
2- POWER FACTOR
3- REACTIVE COMPONENT OF CURRENT
4- DISADVANTAGES OF LOW P.F.
5- THE BASIC PRINCIPLE OF P.F. IMPROVEMENT
6- METHODS OF IMPROVING P.F.
7- COMPARISON OF SYNCHRONOUS CAPACITORS AND STATIC CAPACITORS
8- LOCATION OF P.F. CORRECTION EQUIPMENT
9- CALCULATION OF THE VALUE OF CAPACITOR IN FARADS
10- CALCULATIONS OF CAPACITANCE IN KVAR
11- ECONOMICS OF P.P. IMPROVEMENT
12- NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
13- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 7: SUPPLY SYSTEMS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
3- IMPORTANT POINTS
4- STAR DELTA CONNECTIONS
5- COMPARISON BETWEEN A.C. AND D.C. SYSTEMS OF TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
6- COMPARISON BETWEEN OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND SYSTEMS OF TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
7- HIGH VOLTAGE (H.V.) D.C. TRANSMISSION
8-  ADVANTAGES OF H.V.D.C. TRANSMISSION
9- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 8: TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- ADVANTAGES OF TRANSMISSION AT HIGH VOLTAGE
3- LIMITATIONS OF HIGH TRANSMISSION VOLTAGES
4- ECONOMICAL TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE
5- ECONOMICAL SIZE OF CONDUCTOR - KELVIN'S LAW
6- LIMITATIONS OF KELVIN'S LAW
7- NUMERICALS
8-  VARIOUS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
9- CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF COPPER REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS OVERHEAD SYSTEMS
10- CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF COPPER REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS UNDERGROUND SYSTEMS OF TRANSMISSION
11- COMPARISON OF VOLUMES OF COPPER
12- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 9: DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
3- CLASSIFICATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
4- REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD DISTRIBUTION SCHEME
5- OVERHEAD VERSUS UNDERGROUND SYSTEM
6- D.C. DISTRIBUTION
7- BOOSTER
8- TYPES OF LOADING
9- TYPES OF DISTRIBUTORS
10- DISTRIBUTOR FED AT ONE END : (CONCENTRATED LOADING)
11- NUMERICALS
12- DISTRIBUTOR FED AT ONE END (UNIFORMLY LOADED)
13- NUMERICAL
14- DISTRIBUTOR FED AT BOTH ENDS (CONCENTRATED LOADING)
15- NUMERICAL
16 - DISTRIBUTORS WITH UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS AND FED AT BOTH ENDS
17- NUMERICAL
18- DISTRIBUTOR (UNIFORMLY LOADED) FED AT THE CENTRE
19- NUMERICAL
20- THREE WIRE DC SYSTEM
21- NUMERICALS
22- RING DISTRIBUTOR
23- NUMERICALS
24- AC DISTRIBUTION
25- AC DISTRIBUTION CALCULATIONS
26- NUMERICAL
27- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 10: UNDERGROUND CABLES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- UNDERGROUND CABLES
3- CONSTRUCTION OF CABLES
4- INSULATING MATERIALS FOR CABLES
5- CLASSIFICATION OF CABLES
6- SOLID TYPE CABLES
7- LAYING OF UNDERGROUND CABLES
8-  INSULATION RESISTANCE OF A SINGLE-CORE CABLE
9- CAPACITANCE OF A SINGLE CORE
10- DIELECTRIC STRESS OF A SINGLE CORE CABLE
11- ECONOMICAL CONDUCTOR SIZE FOR A CABLE
12- GRADING OF CABLES
13- CAPACITANCE OF THREE CORE CABLES
14- FAILURE OF UNDERGROUND CABLES
15- POWER FACTOR OF CABLE
16- LOCATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT AND OPEN CIRCUIT FAULTS
17- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 11: INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHGEAR
1- INTRODUCTION
2- SWITCHGEAR
3- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUSE AND A CIRCUIT BREAKER
4- COMPARISON BETWEEN SWITCH, ISOLATOR AND CIRCUIT BREAKER
5- COMPONENTS OF A SWITCH GEAR
6- BUS-BAR ARRANGEMENTS
7- SWITCHGEAR ACCOMMODATION
8- SHORT-CIRCUIT
9- SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
10- FAULTS IN A POWER SYSTEM
11- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 12: CIRCUIT BREAKERS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- CIRCUIT BREAKERS
3- ARC PHENOMENON
4- PRINCIPLES OF ARC EXTINCTION
5- METHODS OF ARC EXTINCTION
6- IMPORTANT TERMS
7- CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
8- OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
9- TYPES OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
10- PLAIN BREAK OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
11- ARC CONTROL OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
12- LOW OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
13- MAINTENANCE OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
14- AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
15- TYPES OF AIR-BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
16- SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SFG) CIRCUIT BREAKERS
17- VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS (VCB)
18- CIRCUIT BREAKER CMPONENTS
19- PROBLEMS OF CIRCUIT INTERRUPTION
20- RESISTANCE SWITCHING
21- CIRCUIT BREAKER RATINGS
22- TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER MOUNTINGS AND ENCLOSURES
23- TESTING OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
24- EXAMPLES
25- DO IT YOURSELF
CHAPTER 13: FUSES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT  FUSES
3- ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FUSES
4- OPERATION OF FUSES
5- MATERIAL OF FUSE WIRE
6- TERMS RELATED WITH FUSES
7- TYPES OF FUSES
8- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUSE AND CIRCUIT BREAKER
9- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 14: PROTECTIVE RELAYS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- FUNCTIONS OF A RELAY
3- QUALITIES OF A GOOD RELAY
4- RELAY SYSTEMS
5- CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS
6- OBTAINING TIME DELAY/LAG/DRAG
7- DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANT RELAYS
8- INDUCTION RELAYS
9- DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
10- TRANSLAY RELAY
11- IMPORTANT RELAY TERMS
12- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 15: PROTECTION OF ALTERNATORS AND TRANSFORMERS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- PROTECTION OF ALTERNATORS
3- MERZ PRICE PROTECTION FOR ALTERNATORS
4- TURN TO TURN (OR INTER TURN) PROTECTION
5- PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS
6- BUCHHOLZ RELAY
7- EARTH FAULT/LEAKAGE PROTECTION
8- COMBINED LEAKAGE AND OVERLOAD PROTECTION
9- DIFFERENTIAL/MEN PRICE PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMERS
10- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 16: PROTECTION OF BUS BARS, FEEDERS AND TRANSMISSION LINES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- PROTECTION OF BUS BARS
3- PROTECTION OF FEEDERS
4- TIME GRADED OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
5- PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
6- DISTANCE PROTECTION
7- OVERLOAD PROTECTION OF 3 PHASE LINE
8- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION AGAINST OVERVOLTAGES AND LIGHTNING
1-INTRODUCTION
2- VOLTAGE SURGE/TRANSIENT VOLTAGE/TRAVELLING WAVES
3- CAUSES OF OVERVOLTAGES
4- IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT LIGHTNING
5- LIGHTNING STROKE ON POWER SYSTEMS
6- HARMFUL EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING
7- PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING
8- DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANT LIGHTNING ARRESTERS
9- TECHNIQUES OF PROTECTION
10- PROTECTION AGAINST SURGES
11- LOCATION OF THE ARRESTER
12- SURGE ABSORBERS
13- TYPES OF ABSORBERS
14- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 18: SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION AND REACTORS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- SHORT CIRCUIT
3- TYPES OF SHORT CIRCUITS IN 3 PHASE SYSTEMS
4- LIMITING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS
5- REACTORS
6- TYPES OF REACTORS
7- CONSTRUCTION OF REACTORS
8- LOCATION OF REACTORS
9- CALCULATIONS
10- NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
11- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 19: PROTECTIVE EARTHING
1- EARTHING PRINCIPLES
2- PROTECTIVE EARTHING EQUIPMENTS
3- SOIL RESISTIVITY
4- EARTH
5- GROUNDING ELECTRODES
6- EARTHING CONDUCTORS
7- EQUIPMENT GROUNDING
8- BONDING  
9- PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
10- METHODS FOR DECREASING EARTHING RESISTANCE
11- GROUND INSPECTION WELLS
12- SOFTWARE
13- GROUND RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
14- PROTECTIVE GROUNDING OF POWER LINES

CHAPTER 20: SUBSTATIONS AND NEUTRAL GROUNDING
1- INTRODUCTION
2- SUBSTATION
3- CLASSIFICATION OF SUB-STATIONS (SS)
4- COMPARISON BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SUB-STATIONS
5- REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD SUB-STATION
6- EQUIPMENT OF A SUB-STATION
7- OTHER EQUIPMENT FOR A SUB-STATION
8- POLE-MOUNTED SUB-STATION
9- UNDERGROUND SUB-STATION
10- SYMBOLS FOR EQUIPMENT IN SUB-STATIONS
11- BUS-BAR ARRANGEMENTS IN SUB-STATIONS
12- TERMINAL AND THROUGH SUB-STATIONS
13- KEY DIAGRAM OF 66/11 KV SUB-STATION
14- EARTHING EQUIPMENT
15- NEUTRAL GROUNDING
16- METHODS OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING
17- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 21: APPLICATION OF POWER CAPACITOR IN POWER SYSTEM
1- EFFECTS OF CAPACITORS ON POWER SUPPLY CIRCUITS
2- APPLICATION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS TO POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
3- APPLICATION OF SERIES CAPACITORS TO POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
4- SCADA CONTROLLED MULTI-STEP AUTOMATIC CONTROLLED CAPACITOR BANKS & FILTER BANKS
5- APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 22: SVC AND REACTIVE POWER CONTROL  
1- INTRODUCTION
2-REACTORS
3- WHAT ARE STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS?
4- TYPES OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS
5- BASIS OF SELECTION OF COMPENSATOR TYPE 6- STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS THYRISTORS
7- SVC'S CONTROL TECHNIQUE
8- APPLICATIONS OF SVC
9- DESIGN OF SVC PARAMETERS


CHAPTER 23: DIRECT CURRENT HIGH VOLTAGE POWER TRANSMISSION
1- INTRODUCTION
2- TYPES OF DC LINKS
3- ECONOMICS OF DC AND AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
4- ECONOMIC DISTANCES FOR DC TRANSMISSION
5- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 24: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION
1- ENVIRONMENT AND ITS QUALITY
2- MAN'S RIGHT TO MODIFY ENVIRONMENT
3- ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
4- AIR POLLUTION
5- STACK EMISSIONS
6- COOLING TOWER IMPACTS
7- AQUATIC IMPACTS
8- CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES
9- NUCLEAR PLANT IMPACTS
10- HYDRO-PLANT IMPACTS
11- SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS
12- CONCLUSIONS
13- SUMMARY
14- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 25: COGENERATION
1- DEFINITION AND SCOPE
2- TOPPING AND BOTTOMING CYCLES
3- BENEFITS
4- COGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES
5- INDUSTRIES SUITABLE FOR COGENERATION
6- ALLOCATION OF COSTS
7- SALE OF ELECTRICITY TO UTILITY, IMPACT OF PRICING ON COGENERATION
8- ELECTRIC POWER PLANT REJECT HEAT
9- AGRICULTURAL USES OF WASTE HEAT
10- AQUACULTURAL USE OF WASTE HEAT
11- USE OF POWER PLANT REJECT HEAT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT
12- INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM
13- POTENTIAL OF COGENERATION IN INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES 
14- SUMMARY
15- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 26: ENERGY CONSERVATION
1- INTRODUCTION
2- MOTIVATION FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION
3- PRINCIPLES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION
4- ENERGY CONSERVATION PLANNING
5- ENERGY CONSERVATION IN INDUSTRIES
6- ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONSERVATION IN SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES
7- ENERGY CONSERVATION IN ELECTRICAL GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
8- ENERGY CONSERVATION IN HOUSEHOLD AND COMMERCIAL SECTORS
9- ENERGY CONSERVATION IN TRANSPORT
10- ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE
11- ENERGY CONSERVATION LEGISLATION
12- SUMMARY
13- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 27: ENERGY AUDIT
1- AIM OF ENERGY AUDIT
2- ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM
3- STRATEGY OF ENERGY AUDIT
4- COMPARISON WITH STANDARDS
5- ENERGY MANAGEMENT TEAM
6- CONSIDERATIONS IN IMPLEMENTING ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAMMES
7- PERIODIC PROGRESS REVIEW
8- INSTRUMENTS FOR ENERGY AUDIT
9- ENERGY AUDIT OF ILLUMINATION SYSTEM
10- ENERGY AUDIT OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
11- ENERGY AUDIT OF HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
12- ENERGY AUDIT OF COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
13- ENERGY AUDIT OF BUILDINGS
14- ENERGY AUDIT OF STEAM GENERATION, DISTRIBUTION AND UTILIZATION SYSTEM
15- ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
16- SUMMARY
17- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 28: DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT
1- INTRODUCTION
2- SCOPE OF DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT
3- EVOLUTION OF DSM CONCEPT
4- DSM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION
5- LOAD MANAGEMENT AS A DSM STRATEGY
6- APPLICATIONS OF LOAD CONTROL
7- END USE ENERGY CONSERVATIOR
8- TARIFF OPTIONS FOR DSM
9- CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE
10- IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
11- IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES
12- DSM AND ENVIRONMENT
13- INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH DSM
14- SUMMARY
15- DO IT YOURSELF

The course will be useful for managers, engineers/highly trained technicians and operators and senior technical personnel from generation, operation, control, transmission operation departments who are involved in the planning, operation and analysis of a power system. Such electrical engineers could be working in power utilities, oil and gas production and those involved in consultancy.  Participants need no specific requirements, other than a good understanding of electricity and some relevant experience in power engineering. 

Trainees shall receive a portfolio containing a comprehensive course manual.

Attendees shall receive a certificate of attendance from AMAD Tech.