Electrical engineering courses

ELECTRICAL PROTECTION AND COORDINATION

Ref No: 2015042

INTRODUCTION

Electricity kills and injures people. In the UK alone, around 1000 accidents are reported to the Health and Safety Executive each year and about 30 people die of their injuries.
The main reasons for these accidents are: -
Poor maintenance of electrical equipment
Inefficient isolation of electrical equipment, that is to be worked on dead.
Working on or near live apparatus.
The use of unsafe working procedures.

A large factor in the prevention of accidents and equipment disruption is the protective devices used in the system in order to prevent danger and major supply interruption. 
This course has been designed to outline the basic principles and types of protection, including design, selection, setting and testing.
It includes advice, which is relevant to managers and supervisors who control or influence the design, specification, selection, installation, commissioning, maintenance and operation of electrical equipment.

OBJECTIVES

On successful completion of this course the participant will be able to: -
1. Have a better understanding of the basic principles of protection.
2. Have an insight in to the different types of protection available and an understanding of their correct application.
3. Understand the principles of setting and testing protection relays and devices 
4. Understand the principles of coordination.


BENEFITS

Benefit for companies include: -
• Prevention of electrical accidents at work
• Compliance with legislation relating to Electricity at Work
• Reduction of interruption to supplies due to poor protection selection or settings.
• Efficient and safe operation of electrical systems and equipment in the work place.
 

AGENDA DAY ONE

CHAPTER 1: HAZARDS OF ELECTRICITY
1- HISTORY
2-IMPORTANCE OF GROUNDING 
3- GROUNDING CLASSIFICATION
4- EARTH, GROUND AND NEUTRAL
5- DEFINITIONS
6- CONDITIONS OF DANGER
7- HAZARD ANALYSIS
8- ELECTRIC SHOCK
9- AFFECTED BODY PARTS
10- WHY EARTHING?
11- GROUND FAULT INTERRUPTING METHODS
12- ELECTRICAL SAFETY MODEL
13- IP PROTECTION
CHAPTER 4: GROUNDING OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
1- EARTHING PRINCIPLES
2- PROTECTIVE EARTHING EQUIPMENTS
3- SOIL RESISTIVITY
4- EARTH
5- GROUNDING ELECTRODES
6- EARTHING CONDUCTORS
7- EQUIPMENT GROUNDING
8- BONDING  
9- PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
10- METHODS FOR DECREASING EARTHING RESISTANCE
11- GROUND INSPECTION WELLS
12- GROUND RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS

CHAPTER 2: SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
 1- WHY SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
 2- GENERAL COMMENTS ON SHORT-CIRCUIT  CALCULATIONS
 3- ASYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
4- INTERRUPTING RATING, INTERRUPTING CAPACITY AND SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
5- THREE PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS, PROCEDURES AND METHODS
6- THREE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS, OHMIC METHOD
7- THREE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS, PER-UNIT METHOD*
 8- POINT-TO-POINT METHOD
 9- COMPARISON OF RESULTS
 10- DATA SECTION

AGENDA DAY TWO

CHAPTER 3: INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHGEAR
1- INTRODUCTION
2- SWITCHGEAR
3- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUSE AND A CIRCUIT BREAKER
4- COMPARISON BETWEEN SWITCH, ISOLATOR AND CIRCUIT BREAKER
5- COMPONENTS OF A SWITCH GEAR
6- BUS-BAR ARRANGEMENTS
7- RATINGS OF BUSBARS
8- SWITCHGEAR ACCOMMODATION
9- CLEARANCE OF BUSBARS
10- SHORT-CIRCUIT
11- SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
12- FAULTS IN A POWER SYSTEM
13- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 4: CIRCUIT BREAKER
 1- INTRODUCTION
 2- CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 3- ARC PHENOMENON
 4- PRINCIPLES OF ARC EXTINCTION
 5- METHODS OF ARC EXTINCTION
 6- IMPORTANT TERMS
 7- CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 8- OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 9- TYPES OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 10- PLAIN BREAK OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 11- ARC CONTROL OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 12- LOW OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 13- AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 14- TYPES OF AIR-BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 15- SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SFG) CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 16- VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS (VCB)
 17- CIRCUIT BREAKER COMPONENTS
 18- CIRCUIT BREAKER RATINGS
 19- APPLICATION RANGE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 20- TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER MOUNTINGS AND ENCLOSURES
 21- TESTING OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 22- MECHANICAL TESTS
 23- THERMAL TESTS
 24- DIELECTRIC TESTS (HIGH VOLTAGE TESTS)
 25- SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTS
 26- INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT AT SITE
 27- CONTACT RESISTANCE TEST
 28- OPERATION TEST
 29- MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKER
 30- MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE FOR CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
 31- MAINTENANCE OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER (BOCB, MOCB)
 32- MAINTENANCE OF AIR-BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 33- MAINTENANCE OF VACUUM CIRCUIT-BREAKER
 34- MAINTENANCE OF SF6 CIRCUIT-BREAKER
 35- DO IT YOURSELF

AGENDA DAY THREE

CHAPTER 5: PROTECTION OF BUS BARS, FEEDERS AND TRANSMISSION LINES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- BUS BARS
3- DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION OF BUSBARS
4- FAULT BUS PROTECTION
3- PROTECTION OF FEEDERS
4- TIME GRADED OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
5- PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
6- DISTANCE PROTECTION
7- OVERLOAD PROTECTION OF 3 PHASE LINE
8- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 6: TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION. 
1- TRANSFORMER FAULTS
2- DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
3- BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
4- RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
5- OVER CURRENT PROTECTION
6- OVERLOAD PROTECTION
7- GAS OPERATED (BUCHHOLZ) RELAY
8- SUDDEN PRESSURE RELAY
9- THE INTERNAL FAULT DETECTOR (IFD)
10- EXPLOSION VENTS
11- TEMPERATURE INDICATORE
12- TANK EARTH PROTECTION
13- DO IT YOURSELF

AGENDA DAY FOUR

CHAPTER 7: MOTOR FAILURE ANALYSIS 
1- FREQUENT STARTS
2- HIGH INERTIA
3- INADEQUATE COOLING
4- CONGESTION ON FAN COVER
5- IMPROPER SPACING AT END OF MOTOR
6- INCORRECT BELT ALIGNMENT
7- SOLID BELT GUARDS
8- EXCESSIVE LOADING CAUSING BEARING CLEARANCE PROBLEMS
9- INSULATION FAILURES
10- BEARING CURRENT PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 8: PROTECTION OF MOTORS
1- THERMAL OVERLOAD
2- TIME CONSTRAINTS
3- EARLY RELAYS AND NEW DIGITAL RELAYS
4- STARTING AND STALLING CONDITIONS
5- OVER CURRENT / OVERLOAD
6- UNDER-VOLTAGE / OVER-VOLTAGE
7- PROTECTION OF MOTORS (CONT’D)
8-UNDER FREQUENCY
9- POLE SLIP / OUT OF STEP 
10- LOSS OF EXCITATION 
11- INADVERTENT ENERGIZATION 
12- OVER FLUXING 
13- STALL PROTECTION / ACCELERATION TIME / START UP SUPERVISION /TIME BETWEEN STARTS
14- PROTECTION OF MOTORS (CONT’D)
15- UNBALANCED SUPPLY VOLTAGES
16- NEGATIVE SEQUENCE CURRENTS
17- DE-RATING FACTORS
18- EARTH FAULTS – CORE BALANCE, RESIDUAL STABILISING RESISTORS
19- CALCULATION OF PROTECTIVE RELAY SETTINGS

AGENDA DAY FIVE

CHAPTER 9: PROTECTIVE EARTHING
1- EARTHING PRINCIPLES
2- PROTECTIVE EARTHING EQUIPMENTS
3- SOIL RESISTIVITY
4- EARTH
5- GROUNDING ELECTRODES
6- EARTHING CONDUCTORS
7- EQUIPMENT GROUNDING
8- BONDING  
9- PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
10- METHODS FOR DECREASING EARTHING RESISTANCE
11- GROUND INSPECTION WELLS
12- SOFTWARE
13- GROUND RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
14- PROTECTIVE GROUNDING OF POWER LINES

CHAPTER 10: PROTECTING ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FROM LIGHTNING & TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- THEORY OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES
3- THE PROBLEMS TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES CAUSE
4- IS PROTECTION REQUIRED
5- PROTECTION TECHNIQUES AND BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
6- DEPLOYMENT OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTORS

Managers, supervisors and operators who control or influence the design, specification, selection, installation, commissioning, maintenance and operation of 11KV and 415 volt systems.

Trainees shall receive a portfolio containing a comprehensive course manual.

Attendees shall receive a certificate of attendance from AMAD Tech.