Electrical engineering courses

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DESIGN "SUBSTATIONS"‏

Ref No: 2015068

CHAPTER 1: HAZARDS OF ELECTRICITY
1- HISTORY
2-IMPORTANCE OF GROUNDING 
3- GROUNDING CLASSIFICATION
4- EARTH, GROUND AND NEUTRAL
5- DEFINITIONS
6- CONDITIONS OF DANGER
7- HAZARD ANALYSIS
8- ELECTRIC SHOCK
9- THE ROLE OF OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICES IN ELECTRICAL SAFETY
10- WORKSPACE 
11- AFFECTED BODY PARTS
12- WHY EARTHING?
13- GROUND FAULT INTERRUPTING METHODS
14- ELECTRICAL SAFETY MODEL
15- SAFETY APPROACH
16- ELECTRICALLY SAFE WORK CONDITION
17- ENERGIZED OR DE-ENERGIZED
18- IP PROTECTION
19- PREVENTING ACCIDENTAL ELECTRICAL CONTACT
20- SUMMARY – HAZARDS & PROTECTIONS

CHAPTER 2 : GENERATION OF POWER AND GENERATING PLANTS
 1- INTRODUCTION
2- ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
3- SOURCES OF ENERGY
4- GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER
5- CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS
6- STEAM POWER PLANTS
7- HYDROELECTRIC (HYDEL) PLANTS
8- NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
9- DIESEL POWER PLANTS
10- COMPARISON OF VARIOUS POWER PLANTS
11- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 3: POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
3- EFFECT OF POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
4- MAGNITUDE OF FAULT CURRENT
5- EVOLUTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS:
6- ZONES OF PROTECTION:
7- ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF PROTECTION:

CHAPTER 4: SIMPLE CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS
I-  NTRODUCTION
2-  DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN LOAD AND FAULT CURRENTS
3-  SOURCES OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS
4-  MACHINE REACTANCES DURING TRANSIENTS
5-  FAULT TYPOLOGY
6-  SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL CURRENTS
7-  CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT MVA
8-  THREE PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS, PROCEDURES AND METHODS
9-  OHMIC REACTANCE METHOD
10-  PERCENTAGE REACTANCE METHOD
11-  PER UNIT METHOD
12-  CABLE INFORMATION

CHAPTER 5: SUBSTATIONS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- SUBSTATION
3- CLASSIFICATION OF SUB-STATIONS (SS)
4- COMPARISON BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SUB-STATIONS
5- REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD SUB-STATION
6- EQUIPMENT OF A SUB-STATION
7- OTHER EQUIPMENT FOR A SUB-STATION
8- POLE-MOUNTED SUB-STATION
9- UNDERGROUND SUB-STATION
10- SYMBOLS FOR EQUIPMENT IN SUB-STATIONS
11- TERMINAL AND THROUGH SUB-STATIONS
12- KEY DIAGRAM OF 66/11 KV SUB-STATION
13- MINIMUM CLEARANCE FOR OUTDOOR A.C. SUBSTATION
14- EARTHING EQUIPMENT
15- NEUTRAL GROUNDING
16- METHODS OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING
17- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 6: PROTECTIVE EARTHING
1- EARTHING PRINCIPLES
2- PROTECTIVE EARTHING EQUIPMENTS
3- SOIL RESISTIVITY
4- EARTH
5- GROUNDING ELECTRODES
6- EARTHING CONDUCTORS
7- EQUIPMENT GROUNDING
8- BONDING  
9- PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
10- METHODS FOR DECREASING EARTHING RESISTANCE
11- GROUND INSPECTION WELLS
12- SOFTWARE
13- GROUND RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
14- PROTECTIVE GROUNDING OF POWER LINES

CHAPTER 7: PROTECTING ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FROM LIGHTNING & TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- THEORY OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES
3- THE PROBLEMS TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES CAUSE
4- IS PROTECTION REQUIRED
5- PROTECTION TECHNIQUES AND BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
6- DEPLOYMENT OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTORS

CHAPTER 8: NEUTRAL EARTHING OF INDUSTRIAL HV NETWORK
1- INTRODUCTION
2- TYPES OF SYSTEM EARTHING
3- WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF SYSTEM EARTHING?
4- WHAT IS AN UNGROUNDED SYSTEM?
5- WHY CONSIDER GROUNDING YOUR SYSTEM?
6- HOW TO OBTAIN THE SYSTEM NEUTRAL
7- SOLIDLY GROUNDED
8- RESISTANCE GROUNDING
9- COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE
10- NETWORK WITH TUNED NEUTRAL (PETERSEN COIL)
11- GROUNDING AT POINTS OTHER THAN SYSTEM NEUTRAL
12- SELECTION OF SYSTEM GROUNDING POINT
13- NEUTRAL CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT

CHAPTER 9: SELECTION AND INSTALLATION OF CABLES
 1-  INTRODUCTION
 2- SELECTION CRITERIA
 3- SIZING
 4- INSTALLATION
 5-  SPECIAL LOCATIONS
 6- FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE PROTECTION FOR CABLE INSTALLATIONS
 7- SUMMARY

CHAPTER 10: PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF CABLE JOINTING AND TERMINATION
 1-  KITS FOR JOINTS AND TERMINATIONS
 2-  SHELF LIFE
 3- ISSUES WITH PREFABRICATED KITS
 4-  PREPARATION OF CABLE FOR TERMINATION AND JOINTING
 5-  CONNECTION AND RECONSTITUTION OF CABLE PROPERTIES
 6-  CONTINUITY AND GROUNDING ASPECTS
 7- SEALING, HEALTHINESS OF JOINT/TERMINATION & REPAIRS
 8-  INSTALLATION ASPECTS FOR CABLES AND JOINTS
 9-  SAFETY ISSUES AND ACCESS FOR REPAIRS
 10- TERMINATION TO ELECTRICAL MACHINES
 11- TERMINATION OF OUTDOOR HV INSTALLATION
 12- TERMINATIONS TO GIS INSTALLATION
 13- IMPORTANCE OF CORRECT ORIENTATION OF TERMINATIONS
  14- INSTALLATION ASPECTS FOR CABLE JOINTS AND TERMINATIONS
 15- SAFETY ISSUES AND ACCESS FOR REPAIRS
 16- SUMMARY 

CHAPTER 11:  POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT – GENERAL
1- INTRODUCTION
2- CAUSES OF LOW POWER FACTORS
3- KNOWN LOADS POWER FACTORS
4- ANNUAL POWER FACTOR PENALTY
5- UNFAVORABLE EFFECTS OF LOW POWER FACTOR LOADS
6- CAPACITOR PRICE SIMPLE PAYBACK
7- POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT
8- CAPACITOR SIZING
9- ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS OF POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT
10- POWER ANALYZER

CHAPTER 12: TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION
1- INTRODUCTION
2- CORE MATERIAL
3- CORE CONFIGURATIONS
4- TRANSFORMER CORE TYPES
5- TRANSFORMER WINDINGS
6- BUSHINGS
7- TANK
8- TRANSFORMER TANK FITTINGS
9- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 13: POWER TRANSFORMER COOLING AND SEALING SYSTEMS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- COOLING ARRANGEMENT
3- ONAN TYPE COOLING (OIL TO AIR - OA)
4- ONAF TYPE COOLING (OIL TO AIR OA/ FORCED AIR FA)
5- OFAF TYPE COOLING (FORCED OIL AIR FOA)
6. OFWF TYPE COOLING
7. FORCED DIRECTED OIL COOLING
8- GAS INSULATED TRANSFORMER
9- COMPARISON
10- TEMPERATURE GAUGES
11- OIL LEVEL GAUGE
12- THERMAL TIME CONSTANT OF POWER TRANSFORMER
13- DO IT YOURSELF
14- POWER TRANSFORMER SEALING SYSTEMS
15- EFFECT OF OIL EXPANSION
16- SILICA GEL BREATHER AND MOISTURE
17- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 14: OIL TESTING
1- DEFINITIONS
2- FUNCTIONS OF TRANSFORMER OIL
3- TRANSFORMER OIL PROPERTIES
4- TRANSFORMER OIL STANDARDS
5- HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN TRANSFORMER OIL
6- MOISTURE PROBLEMS
7. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSFORMER OIL PROPERTIES
8- CELLULOSE  DEGRADATION
9- GLOBAL VIEW 
10- OIL DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TEST
11- RELATIVE WATER CONTENT TEST
12- PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL TESTS (POLAR CHARACTERISTICS OF OIL)
13- DIELECTRIC LOSSES ANGLE & RESISTIVITY TEST (POWER FACTOR TEST)
14- TRANSFORMER DISSOLVED GAS-IN-OIL ANALYSIS (DGA)
15- OIL COLOR TEST
16- INSULATING OIL SAMPLING PROCEDURE
17- OIL PURIFICATION AND DEHYDRATION
18- YEARLY INSULATING OIL TESTING
19- OIL AGING
20-PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSFORMER OIL
21- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 15: TRANSFORMER TESTING
1- TEST DATA
2- ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS OF POWER TRANSFORMER
3- REASONS FOR TRANSFORMER TESTING
4- TRANSFORMER PERFORMANCE ASSURANCE
5- CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSFORMER TESTS
6- WINDING RESISTANCE TEST 
7- POLARITY TEST
8- RATIOMETER TEST
9- NO-LOAD LOSSES TEST
10- LOAD LOSSES TEST
11- PERCENT IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT
12- LEACKAGE REACTANCE MEASUREMENT
13- EFFICIENCY TEST
14- WINDING INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST
15- WINDING INSULATION CAPACITANCE & DISSIPATION FACTOR (TAN ) TEST
16- SUDDEN SHORT CIRCUIT WITHSTAND TEST
17- OIL PRESSURE TEST
18- TEMPERATURE RISE TEST
19- IMPLUSE TESTING
20- TRANSFORMER ARRIVAL: HANDLING, INSPECTION AND PRE-COMMISSIONING
21- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 16: TRANSFORMER DIAGNOSTICS AND MONITORING
1- SAFETY
2- VISUAL INSPECTION
3- TRANSFORMER DIAGNOSTICS
4- TRANSFORMER MONITORING
5- TRANSFORMER MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
6- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 17:FUSES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT  FUSES
3- ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FUSES
4- OPERATION OF FUSES
6- TERMS RELATED WITH FUSES
7- TYPES OF FUSES
8- FUSE DISCRIMINATION
9- CABLE PROTECTION
10-MOTOR PROTECTION
11-TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
12-PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF FUSES
13-FUSE TESTING
14-DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUSE AND CIRCUIT BREAKER
15-DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 18: CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR PROTECTION
3- REQUIREMENTS OF C. T.S USED FOR PROTECTION:
4- CORE MATERIAL
5- ACCURACY
6- C. T. BURDEN
7- TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF C.T.S
8- VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
9- CURRENT TRANSFORMER THEORY AND CHARACTERISTICS
10-C.V AND C.T ACCURACY
11-FUTURE TRENDS IN C.T DESIGN USING OPTICS
12-TESTING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER
13-TESTING OF VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

CHAPTER 19: CIRCUIT BREAKER
 1- INTRODUCTION
 2- CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 3- ARC PHENOMENON
 4- PRINCIPLES OF ARC EXTINCTION
 5- METHODS OF ARC EXTINCTION
 6- IMPORTANT TERMS
 7- CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 8- OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 9- TYPES OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 10- PLAIN BREAK OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 11- ARC CONTROL OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 12- LOW OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 13- AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 14- TYPES OF AIR-BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 15- SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SFG) CIRCUIT BREAKERS
16-VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS (VCB)
17-CIRCUIT BREAKER COMPONENTS
18-STANDARDS AND FACTORS AFFECTING CIRCUIT BREAKER SELECTION
19-CIRCUIT BREAKER RATINGS
20-APPLICATION RANGE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
21-TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER MOUNTINGS AND ENCLOSURES
22- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 20: PROTECTIVE RELAYS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- FUNCTIONS OF A RELAY
3- QUALITIES OF A GOOD RELAY
4- RELAY SYSTEMS
5- CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS
6- OBTAINING TIME DELAY/LAG/DRAG
7- DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANT RELAYS
8- INDUCTION RELAYS
9- THE OVERCURRENT RELAY
10- DISTANCE RELAYS
11- DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
12- IMPORTANT RELAY TERMS
13- ANSI (NEMA) RELAY CODES
14- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 21: COORDINATION OF ELECTRICAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- BACK-UP PROTECTION
3- COORDINATION OF PROTECTION SYSTEM
4- TIME- CURRENT COORDINATION
5- FUSE TO FUSE COORDINATION
6- PROTECTIVE RELAYING ZONES
7- REQUIREMENT FOR BACK-UP PROTECTION
8- BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION
9- TRIPPING
10- RELAY SETTINGS
11- BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION FOR LV BREAKER
12- AUTO RECLOSING OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

CHAPTER 22: LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER
1- INTRODUCTION
2- AIR CIRCUIT BREAKERS
3- MOULDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
4- APPLICATION AND SELECTIVE COORDINATION
5- EARTH LEAKAGE PROTECTION

CHAPTER 23: PROTECTION OF BUS BARS, FEEDERS AND TRANSMISSION LINES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- BUS BARS
3- DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION OF BUSBARS
4- FAULT BUS PROTECTION
3- PROTECTION OF FEEDERS
4- TIME GRADED OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
5- PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
6- DISTANCE PROTECTION
7- OVERLOAD PROTECTION OF 3 PHASE LINE
8- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 24: TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION. 
1- TRANSFORMER FAULTS
2- DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
3- BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
4- RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
5- OVER CURRENT PROTECTION
6- OVERLOAD PROTECTION
7- GAS OPERATED (BUCHHOLZ) RELAY
8- SUDDEN PRESSURE RELAY
9- THE INTERNAL FAULT DETECTOR (IFD)
10- EXPLOSION VENTS
11- TEMPERATURE INDICATORE
12- TANK EARTH PROTECTION
13- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 25: SCADA SYSTEM - GENERAL
1- INTRODUCTION AND BRIEF HISTORY OF SCADA 
2- FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MODERN SCADA SYSTEMS 
3- COMPONENTS OF MODERN AUTOMATION SYSTEMS 
4- SCADA SYSTEM BOUNDERIES 
5- COMPARISON OF THE TERMS SCADA, DCS, PLC AND SMART INSTRUMENT 
6- REMOTE TERMINAL UNITS 
7- PLCS USED AS RTUS 
8- THE MASTER STATION 
9- SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 

CHAPTER 26: SUBSTATION BATTERIES 
1-  INTRODUCTION 
2- STANDARDS 
3-  REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFETY DURING INSTALLATION AND OPERATION 
4-  RECEIPT AND CHECKING OF BATTERIES AND ACCESSORIES 
5-  STORAGE PRIOR TO INSTALLATION 
6-  PRE-INSTALLATION PLANNING 
7-  INSTALLATION OF BATTERY RACKS 
8-  HANDLING AND PRE-INSTALLATION CHECKS 
9-  MOUNTING OF CELLS ON RACKS 
10- INSTALLING FLAME ARRESTORS AND LABELS 
11- MAKING ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS 
12- CHECKING THE INTEGRITY OF ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS 
13- MAKING EXTERNAL ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS 
14- SUMMARY 

CHAPTER 27: ELECTRICAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT
1- INTRODUCTION
2- GENERAL INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT
3- FLASH AND THERMAL PROTECTION
4- HEAD AND EYE PROTECTION
5- RUBBER-INSULATING EQUIPMENT
6- HOT STICKS
7- INSULATED TOOLS
8- BARRIERS AND SIGNS
9- SAFETY TAGS, LOCKS, AND LOCKING DEVICES
10- VOLTAGE-MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
11- SAFETY GROUNDING EQUIPMENT
12- GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS
13- SAFETY ELECTRICAL ONE-LINE DIAGRAM
14- THE ELECTRICIAN'S SAFETY KIT

CHAPTER 28: SAFETY PROCEDURES AND METHODS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- THE SIX-STEP SAFETY METHOD
3- PRE-JOB BRIEFINGS
4- ENERGIZED OR DE-ENERGIZED?
5- SAFE SWITCHING OF POWER SYSTEMS
6- ENERGY CONTROL PROGRAMS
7- TAGOUT-LOCKOUT
8- VOLTAGE-MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
9- PLACEMENT OF SAFETY GROUNDS
10- FLASH HAZARD CALCULATIONS AND APPROACH DISTANCES
11- TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT
12- THE ONE-MINUTE SAFETY AUDIT

Trainees shall receive a portfolio containing a comprehensive course manual.

Attendees shall receive a certificate of attendance from AMAD Tech.