Electrical engineering courses

PROTECTIVE RELAYS

Ref No: 2015070

INTRODUCTION
Protection of low, medium and high voltage power systems requires an understanding of system faults and their detection, as well as their safe disconnection from the power system. This course presents a comprehensive and systematic description of the concepts and principles of operation and application of protection schemes for various power system elements such as feeders, transformers, motors, buses, generators, etc. The course begins with an overview of power system faults and the protection scheme requirements for the detection and coordinated clearance of these faults. Protection requirements for cogeneration and non-utility generation, and interconnection with the utility power system are covered in detail. This course deals with protection systems from a practical perspective, and includes important functional aspects such as testing and coordination of protection systems. It is specially designed for industries and utilities, which depend on proper system protection for operational efficiency and minimizing damage to equipment. 

COURSE OBJECTIVES
To provide a practical understanding of:

  • The concepts, principles of operation, and application of H.V. power system protective relaying.
  • The analysis of relay operations for various power system faults.
  • The requirements of commissioning and maintenance testing of protection schemes.
     

CHAPTER 1: HAZARDS OF ELECTRICITY
1- HISTORY
2-IMPORTANCE OF GROUNDING 
3- GROUNDING CLASSIFICATION
4- EARTH, GROUND AND NEUTRAL
5- DEFINITIONS
6- CONDITIONS OF DANGER
7- HAZARD ANALYSIS
8- ELECTRIC SHOCK
9- THE ROLE OF OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICES IN ELECTRICAL SAFETY
10- WORKSPACE 
11- AFFECTED BODY PARTS
12- WHY EARTHING?
13- GROUND FAULT INTERRUPTING METHODS
14- ELECTRICAL SAFETY MODEL
15- SAFETY APPROACH
16- ELECTRICALLY SAFE WORK CONDITION
17- ENERGIZED OR DE-ENERGIZED
18- IP PROTECTION
19- PREVENTING ACCIDENTAL ELECTRICAL CONTACT
20- SUMMARY – HAZARDS & PROTECTIONS

CHAPTER 2: POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
3- EFFECT OF POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
4- MAGNITUDE OF FAULT CURRENT
5- EVOLUTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS:
6- ZONES OF PROTECTION:
7- ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF PROTECTION:

CHAPTER 3: SIMPLE CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN LOAD AND FAULT CURRENTS
3- SOURCES OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS
4- MACHINE REACTANCES DURING TRANSIENTS
5- FAULT TYPOLOGY
6- SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL CURRENTS
7- CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT MVA
8- THREE PHASE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS, PROCEDURES AND METHODS
9- OHMIC REACTANCE METHOD
10- PERCENTAGE REACTANCE METHOD
11- PER UNIT METHOD
12- CABLE INFORMATION

CHAPTER 4: NEUTRAL EARTHING OF INDUSTRIAL HV NETWORK
1- INTRODUCTION
2- TYPES OF SYSTEM EARTHING
3- WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF SYSTEM EARTHING?
4- WHAT IS AN UNGROUNDED SYSTEM?
5- WHY CONSIDER GROUNDING YOUR SYSTEM?
6- HOW TO OBTAIN THE SYSTEM NEUTRAL
7- SOLIDLY GROUNDED
8- RESISTANCE GROUNDING
9- COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE
10- NETWORK WITH TUNED NEUTRAL (PETERSEN COIL)
11- GROUNDING AT POINTS OTHER THAN SYSTEM NEUTRAL
12- SELECTION OF SYSTEM GROUNDING POINT
13- NEUTRAL CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT

CHAPTER 5:FUSES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- - IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT  FUSES
3- ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FUSES
4- OPERATION OF FUSES
5- MATERIAL OF FUSE WIRE
6- TERMS RELATED WITH FUSES
7- TYPES OF FUSES
8- FUSE DISCRIMINATION
9- CABLE PROTECTION
10- MOTOR PROTECTION
11- TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
12- PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF FUSES
13- FUSE TESTING
14- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUSE AND CIRCUIT BREAKER
15- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 6: CURRENT TRANSFORMERS & VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR PROTECTION
3- REQUIREMENTS OF C. T.S USED FOR PROTECTION:
4- CORE MATERIAL
5- ACCURACY
6- C. T. BURDEN
7- TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF C.T.S
8- VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
9- CURRENT TRANSFORMER THEORY AND CHARACTERISTICS
10- C.V AND C.T ACCURACY
11- FUTURE TRENDS IN C.T DESIGN USING OPTICS
12- TESTING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER
13- TESTING OF VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

CHAPTER 7: CIRCUIT BREAKER
 1- INTRODUCTION
 2- CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 3- ARC PHENOMENON
 4- PRINCIPLES OF ARC EXTINCTION
 5- METHODS OF ARC EXTINCTION
 6- IMPORTANT TERMS
 7- CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 8- OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 9- TYPES OF OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 10- PLAIN BREAK OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 11- ARC CONTROL OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 12- LOW OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 13- AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 14- TYPES OF AIR-BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS
 15- SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SFG) CIRCUIT BREAKERS
16- VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS (VCB)
17- CIRCUIT BREAKER COMPONENTS
18- STANDARDS AND FACTORS AFFECTING CIRCUIT BREAKER SELECTION
19- CIRCUIT BREAKER RATINGS
20- APPLICATION RANGE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
21- TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER MOUNTINGS AND ENCLOSURES
22-  DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 8: PROTECTIVE RELAYS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- FUNCTIONS OF A RELAY
3- QUALITIES OF A GOOD RELAY
4- RELAY SYSTEMS
5- CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS
6- OBTAINING TIME DELAY/LAG/DRAG
7- DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANT RELAYS
8- INDUCTION RELAYS
9- THE OVERCURRENT RELAY
10- DISTANCE RELAYS
11- DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
12- IMPORTANT RELAY TERMS
13- ANSI (NEMA) RELAY CODES
14- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 9: COORDINATION OF ELECTRICAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS
1- INTRODUCTION
2- BACK-UP PROTECTION
3- COORDINATION OF PROTECTION SYSTEM
4- TIME- CURRENT COORDINATION
5- FUSE TO FUSE COORDINATION
6- PROTECTIVE RELAYING ZONES
7- REQUIREMENT FOR BACK-UP PROTECTION
8- BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION
9- TRIPPING
10- RELAY SETTINGS
11- BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION FOR LV BREAKER
12- AUTO RECLOSING OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

CHAPTER 10: LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER
1- INTRODUCTION
2- AIR CIRCUIT BREAKERS
3- MOULDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
4- APPLICATION AND SELECTIVE COORDINATION
5- EARTH LEAKAGE PROTECTION

CHAPTER 11: PROTECTION OF ALTERNATORS 
1- INTRODUCTION
2- PROTECTION OF ALTERNATORS
3- MERZ PRICE PROTECTION FOR ALTERNATORS
4- TURN TO TURN (OR INTER TURN) PROTECTION

CHAPTER 12: TRANSFORMERS PROTECTION. 
1- TRANSFORMER FAULTS
2- DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
3- BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
4- RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
5- OVER CURRENT PROTECTION
6- OVERLOAD PROTECTION
7- GAS OPERATED (BUCHHOLZ) RELAY
8- SUDDEN PRESSURE RELAY
9- THE INTERNAL FAULT DETECTOR (IFD)
10- EXPLOSION VENTS
11- TEMPERATURE INDICATORE
12- TANK EARTH PROTECTION
13- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 13: PROTECTION OF BUS BARS, FEEDERS AND TRANSMISSION LINES
1- INTRODUCTION
2- BUS BARS
3- DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION OF BUSBARS
4- FAULT BUS PROTECTION
3- PROTECTION OF FEEDERS
4- TIME GRADED OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
5- PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES
6- DISTANCE PROTECTION
7- OVERLOAD PROTECTION OF 3 PHASE LINE
8- DO IT YOURSELF

CHAPTER 14:MOTOR PROTECTION
1- INTRODUCTION
2- POTENTIAL MOTOR HAZARD
3- MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS INVOLVED IN PROTECTION
4- INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
5- GENERAL MOTOR PROTECTION
6- PHASE FAULT PROTECTION
7- DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
8- GROUND FAULT PROTECTION
9- THERMAL AND LOCKED ROTOR PROTECTION
10- LOCKED ROTOR PROTECTION FOR LARGE MOTORS
11- SYSTEM UNBALANCE AND MOTORS
12- UNBALANCE AND PHASE ROTATION PROTECTION
13- UNDER VOLTAGE PROTECTION
14- BUS TRANSFER AND RECLOSING
15- REPITIVE STARTS AND JOGGING PROTECTION
16- MULTIFUNCTION MICROPROCESSOR MOTOR PROTECTION UNITS
17- SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR PROTECTION
18- SUMMARY TYPICAL PROTECTION FOR MOTORSA

 

The course is intended for engineers, technicians, technologists, control engineers, operators, designers, supervisors, and managers in the industrial, consulting, and utility fields involved in design, regulatory inspection, operation and maintenance who require knowledge of electrical power system protective relaying techniques. The course will also be very useful to those generally knowledgeable in protective relaying, but who may require a refresher or update.

Trainees shall receive a portfolio containing a comprehensive course manual.

Attendees shall receive a certificate of attendance from AMAD Tech.